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Es ist ein Lebewesen, To me it means what I mentioned the Danish poet said about, about certain animals that they simply are so awe inspiring, if you know this expression. Wonderful creatures. And it comes from an experience I had in Alaska in They were doing this bubble net, where they come up with the whole body up in the water.

And they all stand on the surface before they, very softly sink back in the water again. And then they put a microphone in the water and you can hear the communication, their song. I tell you, this is the most extraordinary experience I ever had. It, it makes you, well, your hairs stand up and your heart stop. And there was a young humpback whale that did not took, take part in this. They said he was too young to know what to do. And, and suddenly they disappeared as quietly as they came.

They weigh 40 tonnes. And they were only a few meters away from the boat. And try that in counter, well, it's beyond your wildest imagination. And therefore for me, humpback whales are something very special, very special. I don't say that it should not be hunted, but generally animals were hunted are very shy.

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And I feel it's very important for people to have experiences in nature like this. Because as the poet says it gives you an experience that you can get nowhere else, of a link between animals and you, or a respect for them, love for them. And you can only get that if you're fairly close. But if you hunt a species it's very shy, and it will run away when you are maybe meters from them. Kultur in Verbindung. In dieser Walperzeption wird der Wal bzw. Herr P. Mattak We are going to have whale meat tonight for instance. Some Danish friends are coming and every time we meet new people and new friends usually after a couple of weeks we ask: "Have you ever tasted whale meat?

That's a part of being a Greenlander to invite foreigners to taste this huge animal. Come on! For me personally it just has become the, well it can't be reindeer meat because it's so common. You can buy it. But whale meat. I've been hunting whales once. I joined them hunting. It's a very large animal, so huge, very fast. It's a beautiful animal, very tasty. And I think it's because I have this picture of a painting But he is describing a hunting in this fjord from, from skin boats, where a guy is wearing skin shoes.

We had them years ago those water-proofed shoes. He's jumping up the animal, a whale, from his boat [lacht]. It's amazing. The guy is crazy, how can he do that. But he did it, that's the way they did it.

Sieben disziplinen- und institutionenübergreifende Zukunftskollegs gefördert

And that's why the animal, by eating the animal is a special thing for me. It's a picture from my childhood. That is my, if you ask me very simply: what does it mean to be a Greenlander? Then I would say: That's eating whale meat both the skin mattak and the meat, frozen, raw, fried, cooked. Ein weiterer Befragter, der Schriftsteller Herr Ro. Sie spricht von ihrer liebevollen Zuneigung zu ihrem Land "loving affection". As most Japanese are fond of whale meat and believe that the whales saved them from starvation after the war, there is little disagreement about the value of such meat.

Moreover, since few other peoples eat whale meat, this habit also sets the Japanese apart from others. The Japanese thus become unique, and the whaling issue serves to strengthen the much cherished Japanese myths about their identity nihonjinron , which itself helps fuel one form of Japanese nationalism" , S.

Die Perzeption des Wals als ethnisches, kulturelles oder nationales Symbol markiert eine Grenzziehung in Relation zu Anderen. Frederik BARTH sprach in diesem Zusammenhang von Idiomen, die die kulturellen Grenzen zwischen Gruppen aufrechterhalten: "[M]uch of the activity of political innovators is concerned with the codification of idioms: the selection of signals for identity and the assertion of value for these cultural diacritica, and the suppression or denial of relevance for other differentiae" [], S.

Herr U. It means mattak [lacht]. Whale meat. But I've never been whale hunting myself but I really like eating whale, meat and also the mattak. So, I don't know. And then because I've been sailing so much and I've seen so many whales I just, I think of them as a nice view [lacht], to see a whale coming up or something". Frau N. Oh, viele verschiedene Dinge. Wenn er dann erst mal erlegt ist und ja irgendwo hat so ein, so ein Walschlachten hat irgendwo was Faszinierendes an sich. Wenn die Rodebayer 41 12 Stunden und mehr bis zu den Gummistiefeln im Blut stehen und schneiden.

Und Du kannst mir glauben, die Touristen, die hier in Ilulissat sich im Sommer aufhalten, wenn da jemand aus Rodebay anrief und sagt, es sei grad ein Wal angelandet. Es gibt ganz wenige, die dann sagen, nein, also, mach ich nicht. Ja, wir schneiden meistens da nicht mit, wir warten dann bis der, der ausgeschlachtet ist und schneiden dann die Barten raus, die ja Frau und Herr S.

Auch sie unterscheiden zwischen lebenden und toten Tieren. Wenn Wale leben, sind sie "herrliche Tiere", die sie mit Freuden mit dem Fernglas beobachten. Von Finn- und Buckelwalen sind beide besonders fasziniert. Wale nicht als "Fleischberg" sieht und sie nur kauft, um in ihrem Restaurant einheimische Fleischprodukte anzubieten, bewertet Herr S. Walfleisch als "feines Fleisch" und einen toten Wal als "Fleischberg".

Beide sehen allerdings Parallelen zu Deutschland, denn an der Fleischtheke im Supermarkt nehme man auch nicht mehr das ganze Tier wahr, sondern nur noch die Sorte Fleisch "Du denkst dann in dem Moment auch nicht an das Tier"; Frau S. So beispielsweise Frau Na. So, please let me eat whale meat! Seit seinem Die heutigen Entwicklungen des reduzierten Walfanges in Japan frustrieren ihn sehr. Herr E. And sometimes like when the driving whalers got whales, when they want to sell some dolphins to aquarium or someone, he can be a trainer in Taiji to train dolphins before they sell dolphins to someone.

So, yes, he is very interested in whales. Like as a trainer, as a fisherman Sometime he felt his dolphin he is in charge of is cute or you know interesting But anyway he is very interested in whales. So, being a whaler it's a good job, it's a good opportunity to watch dolphins or whales and so, he can get knowledge of whales.

And to be a good whaler it's good to know the, how do they move, how do they leave, so, it's kind of good job, it's a good position. From several points of view: as a trainer, as a fisherman, as a whaler, he is interested in whales. We cannot live without the different whales, narwhales or beluga whales as we eat them when the winter pass by and it is very important for the hunters that they come to our area here. But I would like to mention that I also am for sustainable hunting, and it is important our children should be able to taste and also see those animals.

We will be good while whales are good, while whales are healthy"; der wirtschaftliche Profit solle nicht im Vordergrund stehen. It's kind a strange to say like it tastes good, he likes to eat whale meat but in the same time it's something to take care of. We have, have to take care of. It's kind of ambivalent but still he thinks it's something important. If it's possible if they not gonna extinct, make an extinction, if it's possible to hunt whales sustainably he wants to continue whaling. Whales are something important and something we should take care of.

We can't help killing other lives to survive. We can't, we should not wild animals make to extinction but as long as we can use sustainably and respect life.

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It's so sad, if we cannot, in the future if we cannot eat whale meat [lacht]. It's really sad for him. Auch die Beraterin des japanischen Walfangverbandes, Frau Sa. Whales mean to me? Whales is very important for the resource and it's a very good healthy food and Japan should continue to supply people who would like to eat. Once, it is established that certain whale species that we hunt from are abounded. And if the science could help to establish this fact then we should really resort to this science to determine whether or not whaling should continue or not.

So, what we are doing is right I think. To establish the science in population assessment and also the status of the whale population of variety of different kinds. In ihrer Walperzeption nehmen sie Bezug auf die universale Idee der nachhaltigen Nutzung von Wildtieren. Der Begriff sustainable development 56 ist ein etablierter Begriff im Sprachgebrauch der Interviewten. Es zeigt sich, dass die unterschiedlichen Walperzeptionen der Interviewten durch verschiedene Bezugspunkte hergestellt werden: Meiner Interpretation zufolge nimmt die jeweilige Wahrnehmung von Walen Bezug auf etwas anderes.

Je nach Narration wird der Wal zu einem Symbol bzw. Ferne zu Walen in ihrem jeweiligen Alltag zu sein. Diese Feststellung ist jedoch nur ein erster Schritt. Diese auf Felsen bzw. Da sich eine wirtschaftliche Nutzung der Wale in der Region bald nicht mehr lohnte, folgte die internationale Expansion des baskischen Walfanges. Mit pelagischem Walfang ist der Pottwalfang gemeint. Nach heutigem Wissen umfassen die Waltiere, auch Cetacea genannt, etwa 75 bis 81 Arten vgl.

Sie lassen sich grob in Bartenwale bzw. Mysticeti "Schnurrbartwale" und Zahnwale bzw. Odontoceti einteilen. Das dominante Unterscheidungskriterium stellt in dieser Kategorisierung die Art der Nahrungswerkzeuge dar. Eine derartige Forschung hat in einer zunehmend globalisierten Welt nicht mehr einen einzigen Ort als Untersuchungsgegenstand. SOWA It is eaten raw, after being cut into small pieces and lightly sprinkled with salt or 'Aromat' and served with rye bread. It is chewy, tastes like avocado or some say nuts and is considered a delicacy.

Hier liegt ein zentraler Unterschied zum importierten Essen, das Qallunaamineq , im Plural Qallunaamernit , genannt wird. Akimichi, Tomoya; Asquith, Pamela J. Small-type coastal whaling in Japan. Report of an International Workshop. Occasional Publication No. Andresen, Steinar Science and politics in the international management of whales.

Marine Policy , 13 2 , The effectiveness of the International Whaling Commission. Arctic , 46 2 , The whaling issue. Marine Policy , 24 3 , Aune, Ivar A. Melsungen: Neumann-Neudamm Ed. Baethge, Martin Soziale Welt , 42 1 , Weinheim: Juventa-Verlag. Barth, Fredrik []. Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. September bis 6. November Auf Walfang — Geschichte einer Ausbeutung. In Knuth Weidlich Hrsg. Hamburg: Historika-Photoverlag. Bartos, Burghard Abenteuer Greenpeace: Taten statt Warten.

Wien: Ueberreuter. A guide to the Taiji Whale Museum and whaling sites in Taiji. Taiji: Taiji Whale Museum. Becher-Ketterer, Patricia Walfang — Im Zeichen von Unvernunft und Verantwortungslosigkeit. Berthelsen, Christian Nuuk: Atuakkiorfik Ilinniusiorfik. Biermann, Frank Birnie, Patricia Marine Policy , 7 1 , Das Experteninterivew: Theorie, Methode, Anwendung 2.

Borchgrevink, Axel Silencing language: Of anthropologists and interpreters. Ethnography , 4 1 , Bourdieu, Pierre Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft Der deutsche Diskurs zu nachhaltiger Entwicklung. Introduction: Difference and transdifference. Experteninterviews in der Arbeitsmarktforschung. Die Greenpeace-Story 2. Hamburg: Inter-Book. Carwardine, Mark Whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

Whales: Their emerging right to life. The American Journal of International Law , 85 1 , Darling, James D. Ringnetzfischer des Meeres. In James D. Darling, Charles Nicklin, Kenneth S. Einarsson, Niels All animals are equal but some are cetaceans. Conservation and culture conflict. In Kay Milton Hrsg. London: Routledge. Ellis, Richard Mensch und Wal. Die Geschichte eines ungleichen Kampfes. Seeungeheuer: Mythen, Fabeln und Fakten. Engelhardt, Wolfgang Januar ]. Flick, Uwe Freeman, Milton M. A commentary on political issues with regard to contemporary whaling.

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North Atlantic Studies , 2 , Political issues with regard to contemporary whaling. In Simon Ward Hrsg. Tokio: Institute of Cetacean Research. International attitudes to whales, whaling and the use of whale products: A six-country survey. In Milton M. Kreuter Hrsg. Gambell, Ray Whale conservation: Role of the International Whaling Commission. Marine Policy , 1 4 , International management of whales and whaling: An historical review of the regulation of commercial and aboriginal subsistence whaling. Girtler, Roland Die "teilnehmende unstrukturierte Beobachtung" — ihr Vorteil bei der Erforschung des sozialen Handelns und des in ihm enthaltenen Sinns.

Werkstattberichte und methologische Reflexionen S. Methoden der qualitativen Sozialforschung: Anleitung zur Feldarbeit 3. Methoden der Feldforschung 4. Wien: LIT. Hamilton, Robert Naturalist's library: Mammalia. London: Henry G. Hauff, Volker Unsere gemeinsame Zukunft. Greven: Eggenkamp. Heazle, Michael Scientific uncertainty and the International Whaling Commission: An alternative perspective on the use of science in policy making. Marine Policy , 28 5 , Hertling, Birgitte Greenlandic for travelers.

Nuuk: Atuakkiorfik. High North Alliance Marine hunters: Whaling and sealing in the North Atlantic. Gottlieb Knaus in Sibirien als Kriegsgefangener. In meiner Familie nimmt man an, dass er sich in Sibirien in eine Ludmilla verliebt hatte. Er kam aus einer armen Familie. Nach der kurzen Ausbildung wurde er in die Alpen geschickt. Er verbrachte zwei Jahre in den Dolomiten hoch oben in den Bergen. Einmal, beim Essenholen, geriet Alfons in eine Lawine. Alle litten schrecklich Hunger in den Bergen. Nach Friedenschluss kam Alfons von den Bergen ins Tal.

Trotz des Friedens wurde er nun, wie viele andere, von den Italienern gefangengenommen. Alfons erging es dabei viel schlechter als Gottlieb in Sibirien. Die Gefangenen lebten in Zelten. Sie froren und es gab viele Krankheiten. Alfons hatte danach ein Leben lang einen Lungenschaden. Ich fand eine Postkarte an ihn von seiner Familie aus dieser Zeit. Durch ihre Gefangenschaft waren sie noch viele Jahre von ihren Familien getrennt. Mein Vater und meine Tante haben beide in Italien studiert.

Heute lernen meine Mutter und ich beide Russisch. In Italien war ich schon, aber nach Sibirien muss ich noch fahren. Ich hielt Vorlesungen zur Volkswirtschaft und international political economy, vor dem Hintergrund von Hyperinflation und dem Zusammenbruch aller Strukturen. Und ich entdeckte dabei ein mir bis dahin vollkommen unbekanntes Land. Der Zusammenbruch von sowjetischer Infrastruktur und Industrie. Ein Jahr lang kein Warmwasser, manchmal tagelang keinen Strom. Czernowitz Herrengasse — A young Austrian teaching economics in Da war die Verzweiflung einer ex-sowjetischen Mittelklasse.

Monarchie geboren. Deutsch war ihre Muttersprache, Europa ihre geistige Heimat. Beide waren selbst nach Transnistrien verschleppt worden. Rosa Zuckermann, mentor in Czernowitz. Und so hatte jede Generation hier Erinnerungen an den Fall von grossen Reichen. Melancholie lag auf der Stadt. Die Industrie war zusammengebrochen. Zu absurd die Grenze, zu arm das Land dahinter. Zwei Jahrzehnte sind seit damals vergangen. Das amusierte sie sehr. Herr Zwilling und Frau Zuckermann Filmtrailer. Und auch Angst, dass die Ukraine erneut den Anschluss zu verlieren drohte.

Warnungen vor einem dekadenten Westen, der ehrbaren Slawen die Homosexuellenehe aufzwingen wollte? Doch bot Russland selbst keine Hoffnung. Dieser im westlichen Europa gelagerte Reichtum ist heute die Achillesverse, aber auch ein Machtinstrument des Kremls. So kommt es heute in der Ukraine zu einem Aufeinandertreffen zweier Visionen. Da Herrscher, die unbeliebte Grenzen unter vorgeschobenen Argumenten mit Gewalt neu ziehen. Dort die Erfahrung von Integration und offenen Grenzen. In October the Italian army invaded Abyssinia. In the same month the Abyssinians appealed to the League of Nations for help.

Then all resolve faltered. Sanctions were half-hearted. They did not include vital materials such as oil. Britain kept open the Suez Canal, crucial as Italy supplied her armed forces. Mussolini accepted the plan. The League of Nations was a corpse even before it perished. It had no more legitimacy. The Crimea crisis and events in Ukraine today pose a similar threat to the credibility of other European organisations … created, like the League, in the wake of a devastating war with high hopes of launching a new era.

Until a few weeks ago I thought there was time to rescue these institutions.

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Certainly, that it was worth it Today there is good cause to wonder whether the Abyssinia moment has not now also come for Strasbourg. It is not hard to envisage a future for the OSCE in this new, harsher, Europe: it will return to being a forum for debates between dictatorships and democracies, similar to the CSCE after the Helsinki Accords were ratified in the s. Instead let diplomats meet in Vienna and talk and exchange insults about peace and common interests. The same is not true for the Council of Europe. The demise of its credibility creates a void that also needs to be filled: most probably by the European Union, now called upon to define its own human rights acquis more explicitly.

The EU should make human rights central to its association agreements. It should find ways to cooperate with other genuine democracies, from Switzerland to Norway to Moldova in the East. Of course it would be preferable to preserve the Council of Europe and see dictators such as Putin and Aliyev censured instead, until their countries change their ways. But this looks increasingly unlikely. Instead we will have an Azerbaijani presidency and not even symbolic sanctions against Russia after its aggression.

The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg. It is hard to see is how the Council of Europe can function much longer as a hostage of dictatorial and aggressive members. They pay an important share of its budget. They are bent on destroying the values it once stood for. And for some time now they have imposed their vision of the world with impunity. Conventions, agreements, commissions, initiatives such as the Venice Commission , all serving their members , all worthy of being preserved … but outside of the clutch of dictators.

The thread does not stop here, unfortunately. It has so far stood up, valiantly, to pressure from the East over its professional work on election monitoring. Why would Putin or Aliyev want credible election observation any more than rulers in Tashkent or Minsk? It is fighting tough battles over its budget.

It soon faces a crucial choice over its future leadership. In fact, should ODIHR be at risk of losing its credibility as a result of an ongoing Russian and Azerbaijani campaign, or should it be paralysed — then the EU and democracies like Switzerland should stand ready to fund it directly.

It now seems only a matter of months before post-Maidan Europe will see a broader debate on the institutional architecture needed to preserve core values and safeguard the lessons from the s and 40s. Council of Europe. It is a dynamic expression of democratic faith based upon moral conceptions and inspired by a sense of mission. In the centre of our movement stands the idea of a Charter of Human Rights, guarded by freedom and sustained by law … To rebuild Europe from its ruins and make its light shine forth again upon the world, we must first of all conquer ourselves.

I hope you had as good a transition from as I had, here in Istanbul. The s were also, of course, a time of personal optimism for most households in the West against a background of geopolitical fears the Soviet Union had acquired the nuclear bomb and war had erupted in Korea. I hope that the many warnings about the unfolding world economic crisis did not depress you. My personal strategy against too much pessimism is to take a walk and then to read a book or two about recent European history. This puts most things in perspective. On the other hand, there has been no shortage of bad economic news from around the world in recent days.

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  5. Quite a hang-over. This is bad news for the Russian state and its oligarchs. It also turns some of my personal spending last year into a minor misallocation of resources. Yet anybody considering toppling this system will recognise: it is very stable. Energy prices will not decline in the coming years and the demand for Russian raw materials will rise. Its natural resources, linked to high energy prices, make Russia immune to economic crises.

    I put the book aside, to read some other time, perhaps. And I think back to the seminar I attended, at the invitation of Carl Bildt, on the island of Visby a few months ago. They saw a country which had wasted the years of high oil prices; a political economy where both the state and public companies had underinvested; a situation where sources of previous high growth had been exhausted.

    They certainly did not see a stable system of power. As under Brezhnev, super income from the export of oil and gas has to a large extent been frittered away and necessary reforms left undone. In Visby, Boris Nemtsov presented part two of his report. It makes fascinating reading as a story of mismanaging enormous resources. Here are some of the highlights:. So far, so disturbing.

    And surprising, if one looks at the larger picture — and the current investor flight — for one moment. How, I wondered, first reading this paper a few months ago, could all of this have been news to any insiders? Did energy or Russia experts not know these trends unfolding since , when they predicted the rise of a new Russia, powered by the rise of an awesome Gazprom? Was understanding these things — and paying for the best possible research to do so — not a central concern of investors in particular?

    This brings me to a second article. I also read it recently, and recommend it strongly. It is another story of massive overconfidence, bordering on stupidity, by a whole class of highly paid experts, massively misallocating resources. Petersburg the villains are investment bankers from Wall Street. Its author is Michael Lewis and it is called, simply, The End.

    Lewis tells the story of Steve Eisman and his hedge fund FrontPoint. Eisman had come to a conclusion early on which is today all too obvious: that the subprime mortgage bond market was one huge bubble; and that, as a result, the investment banking world on Wall Street was dealing in illusions. FrontPoint invested the funds it managed based on this insight; when the crisis came, it emerged vindicated. If you have any interest in the current economic crisis unfolding around us, you will probably read it yourself.

    But the most interesting issue the article raises goes beyond any assessment of the financial sector. It is the same question that is raised by the sudden need for most experts to reassess their analyses of the true state of Gazprom-Russia: how could such a large community of experts working in a certain sector be so mistaken? In one of the seminal paragraphs in his article, Lewis describes the reactions of Eisman and his team when the Wall Street crisis did erupt in earnest in September The investment banks were not just fucked; they were extinct.

    I sent the article also to a close friend, who first suffered through a PhD in economics and currently works in the financial sector in the City of London. He wrote back:. Well, yes — but also no. The more I think about it, the more I get the feeing that they are research machines in the way that scholastic universities must have been research machines: lots of resources and activities, but somehow missing the crucial ingredients, the crucial elements of the underlying philosophy, to actually make any use of it all — and to prevent egregious, and eventually ridiculous or, as in the present case, tragic errors.

    Here is the meta-question which all these myriad crises raise, and which is of more than passing interest to anybody in the business of analysis and research. It is a question about research, mental models, and the absence of critical questions. It is daunting, even scary, to realise how not just a few experts, but whole communities of practitioners, with a huge supposed material interest to get things right, could get them so wrong. Of course, there were material incentives involved, and much of the story of understanding this failure must now focus on these: how it actually paid off to be wrong.

    On the other hand, there was also a remarkable failure of understanding. Thus, all these stories amount to a very strong case for honest, empirical research. Thorough research, not simply opinions or commentary; research that at times might even be surprised by its own findings. In January it is not only Gazprom managers and Russia experts but the best paid people in the most advanced economies that wake up with a terrible headache. Why has not everyone else figured out that the machine is done?

    And having the courage to state it, when nobody else does. Fragility — autumn in a garden in Moscow one year later. Comments 0. In the essay, she begins by praising the bravery of those who stood in the streets to face down the tanks in Baku: They stood with linked arms. But she still hopes for the release of political prisoners and the triumph of democracy: My greatest desire is to see the Popular Front of Azerbaijan as a single powerful organization speaking out from a position of democracy, defending with the help of lawyers today with human rights organizations everyone who has been arrested.

    Acting now on political prisoners — Six proposals for debate in Berlin.

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    A family history of World War I — and a meaningless war. Filed under: Austria , Europe , Russia — Gerald pm. Czernowitz Herrengasse — A young Austrian teaching economics in Da war die Verzweiflung einer ex-sowjetischen Mittelklasse. Filed under: Europe , Russia , Ukraine — Gerald pm. The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg It is hard to see is how the Council of Europe can function much longer as a hostage of dictatorial and aggressive members. A Fable in 35 Acts that can be read in 5 minutes! A Europe without political prisoners? ESI in Stockholm. What would it take for the vision of a Europe without political prisoners to become a reality in the 21 st century?

    The Statutes of the Council of Europe , signed at St. Repression of liberty of thought and of political opposition in Europe did not end with the creation of the Council of Europe and the adoption of the Convention, however. He started:. The newspaper reader feels a sickening sense of impotence.

    Yet if these feelings of disgust all oer the world could be united into common action, something effective could be done. Benenson of course went on to set up an innovative and new organisation in the wake of his successful camapaign: Amnesty International. However, neither Portugal nor Spain, neither Romania nor Hungary nor Czechoslovakia were then members of the Council of Europe Greece would withdraw from it in following its military coup.

    More than half a century has since passed. The Council of Europe has expanded dramatically so that today 47 countries with a total population of million people have pledged to respect the fundamental rights of the European Convention. But today there is again a challenge to its core values, and this time it is one that has emerged within the very institutions that were meant to protect them.

    The adoption of this definition, following a heated and controversial debate, came at a moment of growing concern that in a number of Council of Europe member states we see a new wave of trials for political motives. The immediate question that emerged now was obvious: how would such a definition become operational? Is the current system of monitors capable of confronting systemic violations? Are other member states, who are committed to defend the European Convention of Human Rights, able to define red lines that must not be crossed by Council of Europe members with impunity?

    How can European civil society do even more to use existing institutions and commitments to resist a rising authoritarian temptation? According to Resolution , adopted in a vote, a person shall be regarded as a political prisoner if he or she has been deprived of personal liberty in violation of guarantees set forth by the European Convention on Human Rights and its Protocols, including freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; freedom of expression and information; and freedom of assembly and association.

    Additional criteria include detention imposed for purely political reasons without connection to any offense; the length or conditions of detention being clearly out of proportion to the offense; a clearly discriminatory manner of the detention; and unfair, politically motivated proceedings leading to the imprisonment. Of course there is always the European Court of Human Rights for individual cases, but what if problems of political prisoners become systemic? It is important to put this debate in the current European context of challenges to the convention, including politically motivated arrests.

    Situations are obviously different even among countries in which problems exist. Azerbaijan and Russia, along with several other post-Soviet states, are today members of the Council of Europe. Furthermore two other members of the Council of Europe, Turkey and Georgia, have also come into focus in this context, though evidently the situation in both of these two countries are very different from that in Moscow and Baku, as well as very different from each other.

    In Turkey we have conceptually at least three different kinds of issues. There is noticeably a lot more freedom of speech than one decade ago, with competitive elections; yet there are also de facto more journalists in jail in Turkey than in any other countries in the world. The trials against many senior military members have been a key tool in a struggle by a civilian government to break the hold of power of the military; and yet there are many signs that they are also political trials, not too concerned about evidence and fairness.

    How promising then are current efforts to promote reforms of the legislation and the judiciary in Turkey to address such problems? Is the definition of political prisoners, is the Council of Europe a useful reference point in a Turkish context? In contrast to its Caucasian neighbours, Georgia has seen a democratic election lead to a real change in power in October ; and there are strong and protective laws on freedom of speech.

    The Council of Europe definition on political prisoners has recently also been applied to set people free from jail. A lingering question is whether these cases will turn into witch-hunts, whether the judiciary will be able to preserve credibility and fairness, and how to ensure that the behaviour of the executive and prosecutors remains within limits of rule of law. The aim of the Conference is to have an open discussion on the issues of political prisoners and political persecution, rule of law and the role of the judiciary overall in the context of the cooperation within the Council of Europe, in particular in the member states mentioned.

    The discussions will also focus on how the Council and its member states should act in a consistent fashion in addressing these issues. Gas, Wall Street, Hang-overs. Welcome back to these pages in early Rumeli Observer. Proposal I: a European website on political prisoners We propose to create a website on political prisoners in Europe, supported by a coalition of human rights NGOs. Proposal II: Effective support mechanisms for families and lawyers of political prisoners How can one most effectively mobilize support for families of political prisoners and their lawyers?

    Tofig Yagublu, political prisoner Some recommended reading:. Moscow On the other hand, there has been no shortage of bad economic news from around the world in recent days. This stagnation in domestic gas supplies is the result of systemic underinvestment in gas production.